Las principales obligaciones de los musulmanes desde el imperio islámico hasta el final del Islam clásico


Islam significa sumisión a la voluntad divina. Afirma la existencia de un único dios, reconoce la existencia de ángeles y demonios, la resurrección y el premio o castigo de los hombres según sus méritos en la vida.
La primera de las obligaciones es la Sahada o profesión de fe, el deber principal de todo musulmán a un único dios con la expresión: no hay más dios que Dios y Mahoma(representación en la imagen inferior) es el profeta de Dios.
La segunda sería "Salat" u oración, que consiste en rezar cinco veces al día en lengua árabe y en dirección a La Meca. Previamente a la oración hay que lavarse cara, manos y pies. El lugar recomendado de oración es la mezquita, que evoca la casa del profeta. Las mezquitas(imagen de l patio de una mezquita, abajo) tienen un patio con una fuente en el centro donde poder purificarse y un porche para protegerse del sol. Ya en el interior está el lugar más importante, el mihrab. Es una hornacina que indica la dirección a La Meca. También en el interior de la mezquita está el alminar, desde donde el imán predica el sermón de los viernes. En el exterior está el minarete desde el cual el muecín llama a la oración.
El tercer deber es el Zakat o limosna. Todo musulmán debía contribuir con una cantidad de dinero para sostener el ejército y para ayudar a los pobres. Es, en teoría, el único impuesto que debían pagar los musulmanes.
La siguiente obligación es el Sawn o ayuno, que es ayunar durante el mes del ramadán. Consiste en abstenerse de toda comida, bebida o relación sexual durante el día. Los enfermos, los viajeros, los ancianos y los niños están dispensados de su cumplimiento.
La Habb o peregrinación. La obligación de todo musulmán es peregrinar al menos una vez en la vida a La Meca(imagen inferior). La peregrinación colectiva se produce dos meses después del ramadán.
Fuente: Apuntes de la asignatura Historia Medieval Universal I

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